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# XLISP Language Reference

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 * - function - multiply a list of numbers * - variable - bound to the most recent result ** - variable - bound to the second recent result *** - variable - bound to the third recent result + - function - add a list of numbers + - variable - bound to the most recent input expression ++ - variable - bound to the second recent input expression +++ - variable - bound to the third recent input expression - - function - subtract a list of numbers or negate a single number - - variable - bound to the expression currently being evaluated / - function - divide a list of numbers /= - function - test numbers for not equal to 1+ - function - add one to a number 1- - function - subtract one from a number < - function - test numbers for less than <= - function - test numbers for less than or equal to = - function - test numbers for equal to > - function - test numbers for greater than >= - function - test numbers for greater than or equal to [ Back to Top ]
 abs - function - the absolute value of a number acos - function - compute the arccosine of a floating point number address-of - function - get the address of an xlisp node alloc - function - change the number of nodes to allocate in each segment and - special form - the logical AND of a list of expressions :answer - message selector - add a message to a class append - function - append lists apply - function - apply a function to a list of arguments *applyhook* - system variable - [not yet implemented] aref - function - get the nth element of an array arrayp - predicate function - is this an array ? asin - function - compute the arcsine of a floating point number assoc - function - find an expression in an a-list atan - function - compute the arctangent of a floating point number atom - predicate function - is this an atom ? &aux - keyword - define auxiliary variables [ Back to Top ]
 backquote - special form - fill in a template baktrace - function - print n levels of trace back information block - special form - named block both-case-p - predicate function - is this an alphabetic [either case] character ? boundp - predicate function - is a value bound to this symbol ? break - function - enter a break loop *breakenable* - system variable - controlling entering break loop on errors [ Back to Top ]
 car - function - return the first element of a list node caar cadr - function - perform a sequence of car and cdr operations caaar...caddr - function - perform a sequence of car and cdr operations caaaar...cadddr - function - perform a sequence of car and cdr operations case - special form - select by case catch - special form - evaluate expressions and catch throws cdr - function - return a list node with the first element removed cdar cddr - function - perform a sequence of car and cdr operations cdaar...cdddr - function - perform a sequence of car and cdr operations cdaaar...cddddr - function - perform a sequence of car and cdr operations cerror - function - signal a correctable error char - function - extract a character from a string char/= - function - test if characters are not equal, case is significant char< - function - test if characters are monotonically increasing, case is significant char<= - function - test if characters are monotonically non-decreasing, case is significant char= - function - test if characters are equivalent, case is significant char> - function - test if characters are monotonically decreasing, case is significant char>= - function - test if characters are monotonically non-increasing, case is significant characterp - predicate function - is this a character ? char-code - function - get the ASCII code of a character char-downcase - function - convert a character to lower case char-equal - function - test if characters are equivalent, case is not significant char-greaterp - predicate function - test if characters are monotonically decreasing, case is not significant char-int - function - convert a character to an integer char-lessp - predicate function - test if characters are monotonically increasing, case is not significant char-not-equal - function - test if characters are different values, case is not significant char-not-greaterp - predicate function - test if characters are monotonically non-decreasing, case is not significant char-not-lessp - predicate function - test if characters are monotonically non-increasing, case is not significant char-upcase - function - convert a character to upper case class - object - the built-in object class :class - message selector - return the class of an object clean-up - function - clean-up after an error close - function - close a file stream code-char - function - get the character with a specified ASCII code comma - reader expansion - comma evaluates expressions in a backquote form comma-at - reader expansion - splices a list into a expression in a backquote form cond - special form - evaluate conditionally cons - function - construct a new list node consp - predicate function - is this a non-empty list ? :constituent - keyword - readtable entry to specify a character to be used as is continue - function - continue from a correctable error cos - function - compute the cosine of a floating point number [ Back to Top ]
 *debug-io* - system variable - file pointer for debug input and output defmacro - special form - define a XLISP macro defun - special form - define a XLISP function delete - function - delete elements from a list delete-if - function - delete elements from a list that pass a test delete-if-not - function - delete elements from a list that fail a test digit-char - function - convert a decimal digit to a character digit-char-p - predicate function - convert a character to a decimal digit, if possible do - special form - 'while' loop with local bindings, evaluated in no specific order do* - special form - 'while' loop with local bindings, evaluated in sequencial order dolist - special form - 'for' loop with loop symbol, looping throgh a list dotimes - special form - 'for' loop with loop symbol, looping a given number of times dribble - function - create a file with a transcript of a XLISP session [ Back to Top ]
 endp - predicate function - is this the end of a list ? eq - predicate function - equality test comparing memory pointers, may fail on numbers eql - predicate function - same as 'eq', but works with all symbols and numbers equal - predicate function - equality test by comparing printed values error - function - signal a non-correctable error *error-output* - system variable - file pointer for error input and output errset - special form - trapping errors eval - function - evaluate an XLISP expression evalhook - function - evaluate with hooks *evalhook* - system variable - user substitute for the evaluator function evenp - predicate function - is this integer even ? exit - function - exit XLISP exp - function - compute e to the x power expand - function - expand memory by adding segments expt - function - compute x to the y power [ Back to Top ]
 fboundp - predicate function - is a functional value bound to this symbol ? first - function - get the first element of a list flatc - function - length of printed representation using princ flatsize - function - length of printed representation using prin1 flet - special form - create local functions float - function - convert an integer to a floating point number *float-format* - system variable - format for printing floating point numbers floatp - predicate function - is this a floating point number ? format - function - do formated output fourth - function - get the fourth element of a list funcall - function - call a function with arguments function - special form - get the functional interpretation of a symbol or lambda expression [ Back to Top ]
gc   -  function - call the garbage collector
gcd   -  function - compute the greatest common divisor
*gc-flag*   -  system variable - controls the printing of 'gc' messages
*gc-hook*   -  system variable - function to call after garbage collection
gensym   -  function - generate a symbol
get   -  function - get the value of a property
 get-key - function - get a single key stroke from the keyboard get-lambda-expression - function - returns a reconstruction of a lambda or macro expression get-output-stream-list - function - empty a specified stream and return it's data as a list get-output-stream-string - function - empty a specified stream and return it's data as a single string go - special form - go to a tag within a tagbody or prog
 if - special form - evaluate expressions conditionally int-char - function - convert an integer to a character *integer-format* - system variable - format for printing integer numbers integerp - predicate function - is this an integer number ? intern - function - create a new interned symbol :isnew - message selector - cause an instance to run its initialization method [ Back to Top ]
 labels - special form - create local functions in a mutually recursive manner lambda - special form - create a function with no name last - function - return the last node of a list length - function - find the length of a list, vector or string let - special form - create local bindings, evaluated in no specific order let* - special form - create local bindings, evaluated in sequencial order list - function - create a list of values listp - predicate function - is this a list ? load - function - load a source file logand - function - the bitwise AND of a list of numbers logior - function - the bitwise INCLUSIVE OR of a list of numbers lognot - function - the bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR of a list of numbers logxor - function - the bitwise NOT of a number loop - special form - basic looping form lower-case-p - predicate function - is this a lower case character ? [ Back to Top ]
macroexpand   -  function - expand macro definitions recursively
macroexpand-1   -  function - expand the first level of a macro definition
macrolet   -  special form - create local macros
 make-array - function - create an array of specified size make-string-input-stream - function - create an unnamed stream from a string expression make-string-output-stream - function - create and return an unnamed output stream make-symbol - function - make a temporary, uninterned symbol
mapc   -  function - apply a function to successive cars, return the first list of arguments
mapcar   -  function - apply a function to successive cars, return a list of the values
mapl   -  function - apply a function to successive cdrs, return the first list of arguments
maplist   -  function - apply a function to successive cdrs, return a list of the values
max   -  function - return the largest of a list of numbers
member   -  function - find an expression in a list
:mescape   -  keyword - readtable entry specifying a character to be used as a multiple escape character
min   -  function - return the smallest of a list of numbers
minusp   -  predicate function - is this number negative ?
 nconc - function - destructively concatenate lists :new - message selector - create a new instance of a class nil - system constant - representing the empty list as well as the false value :nmacro - keyword - readtable entry to specify a character to be used as the start of a non-terminating read macro not - predicate function - is this false ? nstring-downcase - function - convert a string or a part of it to lower case nstring-upcase - function - convert a string or a part of it to upper case nth - function - return the nth element of a list nthcdr - function - return the nth cdr of a list null - predicate function - is this an empty list ? numberp - predicate function - is this a number ? [ Back to Top ]
 *obarray* - system variable - the system symbol table object - object - the build-in object class objectp - predicate function - is this an object ? oddp - predicate function - is this integer number odd ? open - function - open a file stream &optional - keyword - define optional arguments or - special form - the logical OR of a list of expressions [ Back to Top ]
 peek - function - return an internal computer memory value peek-char - function - look at a single character from a specified source plusp - predicate function - is this number positive ? poke - function - write a value to the internal computer memory pprint - function - print a pretty looking version of an expression to a specified destination prin1 - function - print an expression without a newline princ - function - print an expression without quoting and without a newline print - function - print an expression on a new line *print-case* - system variable - specifies how symbols are to be printed prog - special form - a 'block' construct with local bindings, evaluated in no specific order prog* - special form - a 'block' construct with local bindings, evaluated in sequencial order prog1 - special form - a 'block' construct with no local bindings, returning the value of the first expression prog2 - special form - a 'block' construct with no local bindings, returning the value of the second expression progn - special form - a 'block' construct with no local bindings, returning the value of the last expression progv - special form - a 'block' construct with local bindings, created out of two lists given as arguments psetq - special form - perform 'setq' assignments in parallel putprop - function - put a property onto a symbol's property list [ Back to Top ]
 save - function - save a XLISP workspace to a file second - function - get the second element of a list self - symbol - evaluates to the current object when used within a message context send - function - send a message to an object send-super - function - send a message to the superclass :sescape - keyword - readtable entry specifying a character to be used as a single escape character set - function - set the value of a symbol setf - special form - set the value of a field setq - special form - set the quoted value of a symbol :show - message selector - show an object's instance variables sin - function - compute the sine of a floating point number sort - function - sort a list sqrt - function - compute the square root of a floating point number *standard-input* - system variable - file pointer for standard input *standard-output* - system variable - file pointer for standard output strcat - function - concatenate strings streamp - predicate function - is this a stream ? string - function - make a string from a symbol, character or string string/= - function - test if string1 is not equal to string2, case is significant string< - function - test if string1 is less than string2, case is significant string<= - function - test if string1 is less than or equal to string2, case is significant string= - function - test if the string arguments have the same values, case is significant string> - function - test if string1 is greater than string2, case is significant string>= - function - test if string1 is greater than or equal to string2, case is significant stringp - predicate function - is this a string ? string-downcase - function - convert a string or a part of it to lower case string-equal - function - test if string1 equal to string2, case is not significant string-greaterp - predicate function - test if string1 is greater than string2, case is not significant string-left-trim - function - trim the left end of a string string-lessp - predicate function - test if string1 is less than string2, case is not significant string-not-equal - function - test if string1 is not equal to string2, case is not significant string-not-greaterp - predicate function - test if string1 is less than or equal to string2, case is not significant string-not-lessp - predicate function - test if string1 is greater than or equal to string2, case is not significant string-right-trim - function - trim the right end of a string string-trim - function - trim both ends of a string string-upcase - function - convert a string or a part of it to upper case sublis - function - substitute expressions by using an association list subseq - function - extract a substring subst - function - substitute expressions symbol-function - function - get the functional value of a symbol symbol-name - function - get the print name of a symbol symbol-plist - function - get the property list of a symbol symbol-value - function - get the value of a symbol symbolp - predicate function - is this a symbol ? system - function - execute a command of the operating system [ Back to Top ]
 t - system constant - represents 'true' tagbody - special form - a 'block' form with labels tan - function - compute the tangent of a floating point number terpri - function - terminate printing, prints a newline character third - function - get the third element of a list throw - special form - throw to a catch, allows non-local exits and traps :tmacro - keyword - readtable entry to specify a character to be used as the start of a terminating read macro top-level - function - clean-up after an error and return to the top level trace - function - add a function to the trace list *tracelimit* - system variable - the number of forms printed on entry to the break loop *tracelist* - system variable - a list of the current functions being traced *tracenable* - system variable - controls whether or not the break loop prints any back trace information on entry *trace-output* - system variable - file pointer for trace output truncate - function - truncates a floating point number to an integer type-of - function - returns the type of the expression [ Back to Top ]
 *unbound* - system constant - used to indicate when a symbol has no value unless - special form - evaluate only when a condition is false untrace - function - remove a function from the trace list upper-case-p - predicate function - is this an upper case character ? unwind-protect - special form - allows the trapping of all forms of exit from a protected form [ Back to Top ]